Tiny:2013/06/12 19:33

microcontroller design 晴

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1. Introduction
MCU (Microcontroller) since the 70s of last century there has been almost 30 years of time has been rapid development and wide application. With the rapid development of microelectronics, micro-controller with its good performance, small size, excellent prices, outstanding advantages of complete functions, etc. are widely used in household appliances, computing and peripherals, communications, industrial control, automation, intelligent equipment and instrumentation, and other areas as research, teaching, the most effective tools for industrial transformation. Princeton, from the initial structure using a simple micro-controller to the now commonly used in the Harvard bus architecture RISC microcontroller, the microcontroller has achieved rapid development [1].
8-bit microcontroller is currently the largest number of micro-controller, is currently the company is committed to hard work up to the market; the market and price competition is very intense, multi-functional needs of a variety of different specification

microcontroller design

s of the product innovation and the speed is very fast. With the integrated circuits and the rapid development of semiconductor technology, FPGA, and SOC technology continues to competition and integration, electronic product design system performance gradually better, less power consumption, lower cost, higher reliability, easier development direction. Therefore, in line with market demand for rapid introduction of cost-effective, low power, high-cost 8-bit micro-controller chip or IP Core into a number of companies competing today by the hot phase.
2. 8-bit microcontrollers currently updating and design trends
For a different microcontroller (MCU) product applications, not only need to consider cost-effective MCU different manufacturers, but also need to consider the application of the different characteristics of MCU command system. Out for the new emerging intelligent electronic products, it has been in development for embedded systems applications in different MCU new products [2]. MCU products from different manufacturers vary their instruction set, in particular, the different instruction set architecture, such as the widely used market MCS51 series and PIC series of microcontrollers were using CISC instruction set and RISC instruction set.
Microcontroller in accordance with the instruction can be divided into CISC, RISC, type RISC (RISC-LIKE) and so are several. MCS51 controllers are conventional CISC-type, its code density is high, but most instructions require multiple clock cycles to complete. RISC-based instruction generally low density, but the instructions very efficient. RISC-CISC and RISC type are the advantages of both. RISC and RISC class instructions reason why there is such a high efficiency, thanks to a small set of instructions to bring the hard-wired structure and pipeline. Simple instruction set can be hard-wired for instruction decoding, without the need for a controlled manner using microcode to improve the decoding efficiency. Steps into the instruction pipeline completed work in the pipeline filled, the average execution time per instruction (CPI) in an around the clock cycle [3]. Generally speaking, RISC CISC faster than the equivalent 50% - 70%, but also easy to design and error correction.
Therefore, the current 8-bit microcontroller product development and research design is compatible with the main has been widely adopted by customers as the premise of products and continuously improve performance and reduce power consumption in order to adapt to market competition and technological development. For the CISC instruction set for the original MCU products, in the endless series of updates have been gradually integrated into the RISC ideas; for the use of RISC microcontroller instruction set, the more the practice is still low power for high performance consumption needs of its entire system architecture to optimize and improve constantly, especially to improve the structure of the most common lines. This article is made in this situation, discuss the architecture of the 8-bit RISC microcontroller product design technology.
3. RISC microprocessor structure and design principles
Although RISC processor, the industry should have the traits that there are different , but all have some common RISC structure [4]: (1) using the Harvard bus architecture, most instructions in one clock cycle in order to achieve pipelined structure; (2) The independent and simple load / store structure; (3) instruction decoding is usually not hard-wired to achieve micro-decoder in order to speed up the process; (4) most instructions have a fixed format, to simplify instruction encoding and decoding; (5) smaller instruction set and few addressing modes; (6) lines of data channels, so that a high degree of parallel processing; (7) using large-capacity high-speed register file (or register file), try to avoid lower system RAM and speed data exchange. As the operation data stored in the register, thereby reducing the number of memory access. Based on the above discussion, the following key from the perspective of the architecture to high performance, low power two 8-bit RISC microcontroller for the design of the key techniques of research.
4. Key Technologies
4.1 RISC instruction set selection
Use of the system controller with the software programming and hardware design specifications for the interface between the closely related, this interface is a microcontroller instruction set. Instruction architecture (ISA) is the microprocessor hardware and software co-design of the premise. Instruction set must be complete so that all computable functions are reasonable procedures in space are achieved; and the instruction set and must be efficient, so that common functions can be achieved with relatively few instructions. Therefore, providing a microcontroller application development system must have a complete and efficient instruction set.
Microcontroller instruction set directly determines the internal hardware structure, but also the object code compiled user program basis. Instruction set to finalize the necessary procedures with the entire system memory, data memory, register variables and memory addressing modes are closely related and interrelated. Byte of the various components as well as specific should have a unique address so that the correct instruction set of each component can be identified or byte operations. Therefore will have a corresponding series of different measures for different products: 1) the address from the length and require a corresponding increase in the length of the instruction register to weigh; 2) of the Directive and were determined to classify various types of instruction bytes format to simplify the operation control signal decoding logic; 3) increasing the corresponding byte length instruction register to compensate for the deficiency; 4) command byte format allocation should take into account the complexity of the corresponding parts of the structure and the corresponding addressing; 5) memory, registers, I / O port is a unified addressing. The above list is not exhaustive nor the order of the points, should also be analyzed. Corresponding to the corresponding measures of performance, power consumption, design complexity, not the same, should be unified into account. 00 (please make your assessment of the article)
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